Egyptian Pharaohs: The Mighty Rulers of Ancient Egypt | History Cooperative (2023)

From Thutmose III, Amenhotep III, and Akhenaten, to Tutankhamun, Egyptian pharaohs were the rulers of ancient Egypt who held supreme power and authority over the land and its people.

The pharaohs were believed to be divine beings who served as a link between the gods and the people. They played a significant role in shaping the political, economic, and cultural landscape of ancient Egypt and oversaw the construction of massive monuments such as the Pyramids of Giza and the magnificent temples.

There are perhaps no other ancient kings that fascinate us more than those who once ruled over ancient Egypt. Tales of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs, the grand monuments they built and the military campaigns that they waged continue to capture our imagination to this day. So, who were the pharaohs of ancient Egypt?

Table of Contents

Who Were the Pharaohs of Egypt?

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The Egyptian pharaohs were the rulers of ancient Egypt. They held absolute power over the country and its people. These kings were considered to be living gods by the people of ancient Egypt.

The ancient Egyptian pharaohs were not only kings who ruled over Egypt, but they were also the religious leaders of the land. The early Egyptian rulers were called kings but later became known as pharaohs.

The word pharaoh comes from the Greek form for the Egyptian term Pero and means ‘Great House,’ referencing the impressive structures used as the pharaoh’s royal palace.

It was not until the period of the New Kingdom that the ancient Egyptian kings used the title of pharaoh. Before the New Kingdom, the Egyptian pharaoh was addressed as your majesty.

As both a religious leader and head of state, an Egyptian pharaoh held two titles. The first was the ‘Lord of Two Lands’ which refers to their rule over Upper and Lower Egypt.

The pharaoh owned all of the lands in Egypt and made the laws that ancient Egyptians had to adhere to. The pharaoh collected taxes and decided when Egypt went to war, and which territories to conquer.

Pharaohs and The Division Of Egyptian History

The history of ancient Egypt is divided into several periods which are defined by significant political, cultural, and social changes. The three main periods of Egyptian history are the Old Kingdom which began in roughly 2700 BCE, the Middle Kingdom which began in roughly 2050 BCE and the New Kingdom, beginning in 1150 BCE.

These periods were characterized by the rise and fall of powerful dynasties of ancient Egyptian pharaohs. The periods that make the history of ancient Egypt can then be further divided into pharaonic dynasties. There are roughly 32 pharaonic dynasties.

In addition to the above divisions of Egyptian history, it is further divided into three intermediate periods. These were periods characterized by political instability, social unrest, and foreign invasion.

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Who Was the First Pharaoh of Egypt?

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The first pharaoh of Egypt was Narmer, whose name written in hieroglyphics uses the symbol for catfish and chisel. Narmer is translated to raging or painful catfish. Narmer is a legendary figure in ancient Egyptian history, the story of how he unified Upper and Lower Egypt is fact woven with myth.

Before Narmer, Egypt was divided into two separate kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. Upper Egypt was the territory in the South of Egypt, and Upper Egypt was in the north and contained the Nile Delta. Each kingdom was ruled separately.

Narmer and the First Dynasty

Narmer was not the first Egyptian king, but he is thought to have unified Lower and Upper Egypt through military conquest around 3100 BCE. Another name however is linked to the unification of Egypt and ushering in dynastic rule, and that is Menes.

Egyptologists believe that Menes and Narmer are the same rulers. The confusion with the names is because the ancient Egyptian kings often had two names, one was the Horus name, in honor of the ancient Egyptian god of kingship and eternal king of Egypt. The other name was their birth name.

We know Narmer unified Egypt because of inscriptions found showing the ancient king wearing the white crown of Upper Egypt and the red crown of Lower Egypt. This first Egyptian pharaoh of a unified Egypt began a new age in ancient Egypt, ushering in the first period of pharaonic dynastic rule.

According to an ancient Egyptian historian, Narmer ruled Egypt for 60 years before meeting an untimely death when he was carried off by a hippopotamus.

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How Many Pharaohs Were There?

Ancient Egypt had roughly 170 pharaohs rule over the Egyptian empire from 3100 BCE, until 30 BCE when Egypt became part of the Roman Empire. The last pharaoh of Egypt was a female pharaoh, Cleopatra VII.

The Most Famous Pharaohs

The ancient Egyptian civilization had some of the most powerful kings (and queens) in history reign over it. Many great pharaohs ruled Egypt, each leaving their mark on the history and culture of this ancient civilization.

Although there were 170 ancient Egyptian pharaohs, not all of them are remembered equally. Some pharaohs are more famous than others. Some of the most famous pharaohs are:

The Most Famous Pharaohs of the Old Kingdom (2700 – 2200 BCE)

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The Old Kingdom was the first period of stable rule in ancient Egypt. The kings of this time are most famed for the complex pyramids that they built, which is why this period of Egyptian history is known as the ‘age of the pyramid builders.’

Two pharaohs, in particular, are remembered for their contributions to ancient Egypt, these are Djoser, who ruled from 2686 BCE to2649 BCE, and Khufu who was king from 2589 BCE until 2566 BCE.

Djoser ruled Egypt during the Third Dynasty of the Old Kingdom period. Not much is known about this ancient king, but his reign had a lasting effect on the cultural landscape of Egypt. Djoser was the first pharaoh to use the step pyramid design and built the pyramid at Saqqara, where he was buried.

Khufu was the second pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty and is credited with the constriction of the Great Pyramid of Giza. Khufu built the pyramid to act as his stairway to the heavens. The pyramid was the tallest structure in the world for roughly 4,000 years!

The Most Famous Pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom (2040 – 1782 BCE)

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The Middle Kingdom was a period of reunification in ancient Egypt, after the politically insatiable period known as the First Intermediate Period. The kings of this period are known for their efforts in ensuring Egypt remained unified and stable after the turmoil of the previous decades.

The Middle Kingdom was founded by Mentuhotep II who ruled a reunified Egypt from Thebes. The most famous pharaoh from this period is Senusret I, who is also known as the warrior-king.

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Senusret I ruled during the Twelfth Dynasty and focused on expanding the Egyptian empire. The warrior-king campaigns mostly took place in Nubia (modern-day Sudan). During his 45-year reign he built several monuments, the most famous of which is the Heliopolis Obelisk.

The Pharaohs of the New Kingdom (1570 – 1069 BCE)

Some of the most famous pharaohs are from the New Kingdom which is generally believed to be the period when the prestige of the pharaohs was at its peak. The eighteenth dynasty in particular was a period of great wealth and expansion for the Egyptian empire. The most famous pharaohs who ruled Egypt during this time are:

Thutmose III (1458 – 1425 BCE)

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Thutmose III was just two years old when he ascended to the throne when his father, Thotmoses II died. The young king’s aunt, Hatshepsut, ruled as regent until her death when he became pharaoh. Thutmose III would go on to become one of the greatest pharaohs in the history of Egypt.

Thutmose III is regarded as Egypt’s greatest military pharaoh, conducting several successful campaigns to expand the Egyptian empire. Through his military campaigns, he made Egypt extremely wealthy.

Amenhotep III (1388 – 1351 BCE)

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The peak of the 18th dynasty was during the rule of the ninth pharaoh to rule during the 18th dynasty, Amenhotep III. His reign is considered the peak of the dynasty because of the relative peace and prosperity experienced in Egypt for almost 50 years.

Amenhotep built several monuments, the most famed is that of the Temple of Mat at Luxor. Although Amenhotep was a great pharaoh in his own right, he is often remembered due to his famous family members; his son Akhenaten and grandson, Tutankhamun.

Akhenaten (1351 – 1334 BCE)

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Akhenaten was born Amenhotep IV but changed his name to align with his religious views. Akhenaten was a rather controversial leader because he ushered in a religious revolution during his reign. He transformed the centuries-old polytheistic religion into a monotheistic one, where only the sun god Aten could be worshiped.

This pharaoh was so controversial that the ancient Egyptians tried to remove all traces of him from history.

Ramses II (1303– 1213 BCE)

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Ramses II, also known as Ramses the Great built several temples, monuments, and cities during his reign, while waging several military campaigns, earning him the title of the greatest pharaoh of the 19th dynasty.

Ramses the Great built more monuments than any other pharaoh, including Abu Simbel, and completed the Hypostyle Hall at Karnak. Ramses II also fathered 100 children, more than any other pharaoh. The 66-year-long reign of Ramses II is considered to be the most prosperous and stable in the history of Egypt.

Who is the Most Famous Pharaoh in Egypt?

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The most famous ancient Egyptian pharaoh is King Tutankhamun, whose life and afterlife are the stuff of myth and legend. His fame is partly because his tomb, found in the Valley of the Kings, was the most intact tomb ever found.

The Discovery of King Tutankhamun

King Tutankhamun or King Tut as he is widely known, ruled Egypt in the 18th dynasty during the New Kingdom. The young king ruled for ten years from 1333 until 1324 BCE. Tutankhamun was 19 years old when he died.

King Tut was largely unknown until his final resting place was unearthed in 1922 by British archaeologist Howard Carter. The tomb was untouched by grave robbers and the ravages of time. The tomb is shrouded in legend, and the belief that those who opened it were cursed (essentially, the plot to the 1999 Brendan Fraser hit, “The Mummy”).

Despite the claim that the tomb was cursed (it was checked, and no inscription was found), tragedy and misfortune struck those who opened the long-dead king’s tomb. The idea that Tutankhamun’s tomb was cursed was fueled by the death of the financial backer of the excavation, Lord Carnarvon.

The tomb of Tutankhamun was packed with over 5,000 artifacts, full of treasures and objects to accompany the young king in the afterlife, giving us our first unobstructed view of the beliefs and life of the ancient Egyptians.

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Pharaohs as Religious Leaders

The second title is that of ‘High Priest of Every Temple.’ The ancient Egyptians were a deeply religious bunch, their religion was polytheistic, meaning they worshiped many gods and goddesses. The pharaoh presided over religious ceremonies and decided where new temples would be built.

The pharaohs built great statues and monuments to the gods, and themselves to honor the land they had been given to rule by the gods.

READ MORE: 35 Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses

Who Could Become Pharaoh?

The pharaohs of Egypt were usually the son of the pharaoh before. The wife of the pharaoh and mother of the future pharaohs was referred to as the Great Royal Wife.

Just because the pharaonic rule was passed from father to son, did not mean that only men ruled Egypt, many of the greatest rulers of ancient Egypt were women. However, the majority of women who ruled ancient Egypt were placeholders until the next male heir was of age to take the throne.

The ancient Egyptians believed that the gods dictated who became a pharaoh, and how a pharaoh ruled. Often a pharaoh would make his sister, or sometimes their daughter the Great Royal Wife, to ensure the divine right to rule remained in their bloodline.

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The Pharaoh and the Ancient Egyptian Mythology

As is the case with many of history’s monarchies, the ancient Egyptian pharaohs came to believe that they ruled by divine right. At the onset of the first dynasty, the early Egyptian rulers believed their reign to be the will of the gods. However, it was not believed that they ruled by divine right. This changed during the second pharaonic dynasty.

During the second pharaonic dynasty (2890 – 2670) the rule of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh was not just considered to be the will of the gods. Under king Nebra or Raneb, as he was known, it was believed he ruled Egypt by divine right. The pharaoh thus became a divine being, the living representation of the gods.

The ancient Egyptian god Osiris was considered by the ancient Egyptians to be the first king of the land. Eventually, the son of Osiris, Horus, the falcon-headed god, became intrinsically linked to the kingship of Egypt.

Pharaohs and the Ma’at

It was the role of the pharaoh to maintain the ma’at, which was the concept of order and balance as determined by the gods. The ma’at would ensure that all ancient Egyptians would live in harmony, experiencing the best possible life that they could.

The ancient Egyptians believed the ma’at was presided over by the goddess Ma’at, whose will was interpreted by the ruling pharaoh. Each pharaoh interpreted the goddess’s guidelines for harmony and balance within ancient Egypt differently.

One way the ancient kings of Egypt endured balance and harmony throughout Egypt was through war. Many great wars were fought by pharaohs to restore the balance of the land. Rameses II (1279 BCE), considered by many to be the greatest pharaoh of the New Kingdom, waged war on the Hittites because they disrupted the balance.

The balance and harmony of the land could be disrupted by any manner of things, including a lack of resources. It was not uncommon for a pharaoh to attack other nations on Egypt’s borders in the name of restoring balance to the land. In actuality, the border nation often had resources Egypt either lacked, or the pharaoh wanted.

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Pharaonic Symbols

To cement their connection to Osiris, ancient Egyptian rulers carried the cook and the flail. The crook and flail or heka and nekhakha, became the symbols of pharaonic power and authority. In art from ancient Egypt, the items were shown as being held across the body of the pharaoh.

The heka or shepherd’s crook represented kingship, and as such Osiris and the flail represented the fertility of the land.

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In addition to the crook and flail, ancient art and inscriptions often show Egyptian queens and pharaohs holding cylindrical objects which are the Rods of Horus. The cylinders, referred to as the Cylinders of the Pharaoh, were thought to anchor the pharaoh to Horus, ensuring the pharaoh was acting upon the divine will of the gods.

What Nationality Were the Egyptian Pharaohs?

Not all of the kings to rule Egypt were Egyptian. During several periods of its 3,000-year history, Egypt was ruled by foreign empires.

When the Middle Kingdom Collapsed, Egypt was ruled by the Hyksos, an ancient Semitic-speaking group. The rulers of the 25th dynasty were Nubians. and an entire period of Egyptian history was ruled by Macedonian Greeks during the Ptolemaic Kingdom. Before the Ptolemaic Kingdom, Egypt was ruled by the Persian Empire from 525 BCE.

Pharaohs in Ancient Egyptian Art

The tales of the ancient kings of Egypt have endured throughout the millennia in part thanks to the depiction of pharaohs in ancient Egyptian art.

From tomb paintings to monumental statues and sculptures, those who ruled ancient Egypt were a popular choice for ancient artists. The pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom were particularly fond of building colossal statues of themselves.

You will find stories of ancient Egyptian kings and queens on the walls of tombs and temples. Tomb paintings in particular have provided us with a record of how the pharaohs lived and ruled. Tomb paintings often depict moments of importance from a pharaoh’s life such as battles or religious ceremonies.

One of the most common ways ancient Egyptian pharaohs were depicted was through large statues. The Egyptian rulers constructed impressive statues of themselves as a way of expressing their divine rule over the lands of Egypt that had been bestowed upon them by the gods. These statues were placed in temples or sacred sites.

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What Happened When a Pharaoh Died?

Belief in the afterlife was at the center of ancient Egyptian religion. The ancient Egyptians had a complex and elaborate belief system about the afterlife. They believed in three main aspects when it came to the afterlife, the underworld, eternal life, and that the soul would be rebirthed.

The ancient Egyptians believed that when a person died (pharaoh included), their soul or ‘ka’ would leave their body and embark on a difficult journey to the afterlife. Much of an ancient Egyptian’s time on earth was ensuring they would experience a good afterlife.

When one of the ancient Egyptian rulers died, they were mummified and placed in a beautiful gold sarcophagus which would then be put into the final resting place of the pharaoh. The royal family would be entombed in a similar manner close to the pharaoh’s final resetting place.

For those who ruled during the Old and Middle Kingdoms, this meant being entombed in a Pyramid, while the Photographs of the New Kingdom preferred to be placed in crypts in the Valley of the Kings.

Pharaohs and the Pyramids

Beginning with ancient Egypt’s third king, Djoser, ( 2650 BCE),the kings of Egypt, their queens, and the royal family were entombed in great pyramids.

The enormous tombs were designed to keep the pharaoh’s body safe and ensure he (or she) entered the underworld or Duat, which could only be entered through the deceased person’s tomb.

The pyramids were referred to as ‘houses of eternity’ by the ancient Egyptians. The pyramids were designed to house everything the pharaoh’s ‘ka’ might need on his journey to the afterlife.

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The body of the pharaoh was surrounded by astounding ancient Egyptian art and artifacts, and the walls of the pyramids are filled with stories of the pharaohs entombed there. The tomb of Ramses II included a library that contained over 10,000 papyrus scrolls,

The largest pyramid to be built was the Great Pyramid of Giza. One of the 7 wonders of the ancient world. The pyramids of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs are an enduring symbol of the power of the pharaoh.


What Egyptian pharaoh was known for uniting the upper and lower kingdoms group of answer choices? ›

Menes was the first leader of Egypt's first dynasty. He united Upper and Lower Egypt. 十Each kingdom had important events and achievements.

What were the rulers of Egypt known as answer? ›

Pharaohs were the heads of state and religious leaders of ancient Egypt.

What made pharaohs so powerful? ›

As a divine ruler, the pharaoh was the preserver of the god-given order, called maat. He owned a large portion of Egypt's land and directed its use, was responsible for his people's economic and spiritual welfare, and dispensed justice to his subjects. His will was supreme, and he governed by royal decree.

Who were the pharaohs and what role did they play in Egypt? ›

The ruler of ancient Egypt was called pharaoh . Pharaohs were looked upon as more than rulers. They were gods chosen to lead the people and maintain order, and provided an important link between the Egyptian people and their gods.

Who was the first pharaoh to unify Upper and Lower Egypt? ›

Menes, also spelled Mena, Meni, or Min, (flourished c. 2925 bce), legendary first king of unified Egypt, who, according to tradition, joined Upper and Lower Egypt in a single centralized monarchy and established ancient Egypt's 1st dynasty.

Who was the king who combined Upper and Lower Egypt? ›

Menes sent an army down the Nile and defeated the king of Lower Egypt in battle. In this way Menes united the two kingdoms. Unification means the joining together of two separate parts, in the case, the two kingdoms. Menes, sometimes known as Narmer, became the first pharaoh.

What were the rulers of ancient Egypt who built pyramids known as? ›

Pharaoh Khufu began the first Giza pyramid project, circa 2550 B.C. His Great Pyramid is the largest in Giza and towers some 481 feet (147 meters) above the plateau. Its estimated 2.3 million stone blocks each weigh an average of 2.5 to 15 tons.

How many rulers were there during ancient Egypt what were they referred to as? ›

There were 170 Pharaohs across many time periods that spanned over 3000 years.

What is a famous ruler of ancient Egypt? ›

The most famous pharaoh of all time is King Tutankhamun. He ascended the throne at the tender age of nine or 10 but his reign only lasted from 1332 BC to 1323 BC.

What powers did pharaohs have in ancient Egypt? ›

The ancient Egyptian pharaoh held absolute power in the entirety of the kingdom. He owned all property and land, controlled the military, and was the leader of the Egyptians' polytheistic religion.

Did Egyptian pharaohs have powers? ›

Pharaohs held supreme authority in settling disputes, but they often delegated these powers to other officials such as governors, viziers, and magistrates, who could conduct investigations, hold trials, and issue punishments.

When were pharaohs the most powerful? ›

Log in. So from an ancient perspective, the most successful monarchs were Thutmose III (1479-1425/26 BC) and Amenhotep III (c1391-c1354 BC), as they ruled ancient Egypt at the height of its military, economic and artistic powers.

What are 5 facts about pharaohs? ›

Egyptian Pharaoh Facts
  • They required massive palaces in life and opulent pyramids after death.
  • They often married relatives.
  • They were considered gods in human form.
  • They were both religious and political leaders.
  • They were polytheistic, believing in many gods.
  • They had to wear makeup daily as part of their dress.
Aug 27, 2021

How did the pharaohs end? ›

In 332BC Alexander the Great and his Greek army conquered Ancient Egypt. The family of his general, Ptolemy ruled for nearly 300 years. Finally, in 30BC the Romans invaded Ancient Egypt. They defeated Pharaoh Cleopatra and Egypt became part of the Roman Empire.

What did god do to the pharaoh of Egypt? ›

Towards the beginning of the story, Pharaoh hardens his own heart (or it “is hardened” in the passive voice). Following the sixth plague, however, Pharaoh seems to lose his nerve and God steps in, hardening his heart for him. “And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh,” Exodus 9:12 reads.

How were pharaohs chosen? ›

Exactly how successive pharaohs were chosen is not entirely clear. Sometimes a son of the pharaoh, or a powerful vizier (head priest) or feudal lord assumed the leadership, or an entirely new line of pharaohs arose following the collapse of the former monarchy.

What does the word pharaoh mean in the Bible? ›

Pharaoh, [N] [E] [H] the common title of the native kings of Egypt in the Bible, corresponding to P-ra or Ph-ra "the sun," of the hieroglyphics.

Who was last pharaoh? ›

Cleopatra (69 BCE–August 30, 30 BCE) was the ruler of Egypt as Cleopatra VII Philopater, She was the last of the Ptolemy dynasty of Egyptian rulers, and the very last Pharaoh of Egypt, ending a dynastic rule of some 5,000 years.

Who was the first Egypt god? ›

In the Heliopolitan creation myth, Atum was considered to be the first god, having created himself, sitting on a mound (benben) (or identified with the mound itself), from the primordial waters (Nu). Early myths state that Atum created the god Shu and goddess Tefnut by spitting them out of his mouth.

Who was the first female pharaoh of Egypt? ›

Hatshepsut: Egypt's First Female Pharaoh.

Who ruled the two kingdoms of Egypt? ›

"Menes" means "founder." King Narmer united the two kingdoms and built a unified Egypt. Because of that, both King Narmer and King Menes are correct. By conquering Lower Egypt and uniting the two kingdoms, King Narmer became the first pharaoh, which is what the ancient Egyptians called their kings.

Why did Egyptian rulers built pyramids? ›

Pyramids today stand as a reminder of the ancient Egyptian glorification of life after death, and in fact, the pyramids were built as monuments to house the tombs of the pharaohs.

What were the names of the rulers that each 3 of the pyramids were built in their honor? ›

Three pyramids, three rulers

The three primary pyramids on the Giza plateau were built over the span of three generations by the rulers Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure.

Who was the pharaoh that ordered the building of the Great Pyramid? ›

About 2,550 B.C., King Khufu, the second pharaoh of the fourth dynasty, commissioned the building of his tomb at Giza. Some Egyptologists believe it took 10 years just to build the ramp that leads from the Nile valley floor to the pyramid, and 20 years to construct the pyramid itself.

How long did pharaohs rule? ›

Pharaohs ruled Egypt for around 3200 years. That is nearly 320 decades.

Who was the most important person in ancient Egypt and why? ›

King Tutankhamen (Tut for short) is famous for the riches found in his tomb. Or Cleopatra , the ambitious queen who ruled Egypt, is known for her tragic death. These two people were pharaohs - the most important and powerful people in Egyptian society.

How was ancient Egypt ruled? ›

The government of ancient Egypt was a theocratic monarchy as the king ruled by a mandate from the gods, initially was seen as an intermediary between human beings and the divine, and was supposed to represent the gods' will through the laws passed and policies approved.

Who is the greatest pharaoh? ›

Ramesses II, often revered as the 'greatest pharaoh' in Egyptian history, is a man of many faces. In statues and drawings from more than 3,000 years ago, the sacred sovereign is depicted as a handsome, godly man with a rounded face, a prominent nose, and high cheekbones.

Who was the most beautiful ruler of Egypt? ›

At the heart of the exhibition is Queen Nefertari, who was renowned for her beauty and prominence. Called “the one for whom the sun shines,” Nefertari was the favorite wife of pharaoh Ramesses II.

Was the most powerful person in ancient Egypt was the pharaoh? ›

The most powerful person in ancient Egypt was the pharaoh. The pharaoh was the political and religious leader of the Egyptian people, holding the titles: 'Lord of the Two Lands' and 'High Priest of Every Temple'.

How powerful was ancient Egypt? ›

Ancient Egyptian civilization was one of the most powerful and longest lasting civilizations ever to occupy the earth. According to some analyses, part of its durability derived from its openness to influences from other cultures and its malleability in the face of a demographically diverse population.

What did pharaohs do in their free time? ›

According to both the written and archaeological evidence, pharaohs enjoyed many activities during their free time, including: chariot racing and animal hunts, board games, lavish banquets, hearing stories and legends reenacted, watching displays of military...

How did pharaohs lose power? ›

During the rule of the Fifth Dynasty, the authority of the Pharaoh was slowly eroded by the growing power of the Egyptian nobility and priesthood. Egypt underwent a prolonged period of decline and destabilization which eventually led to the fall of the Old Kingdom and the beginning of the First Intermediate Period.

How powerful were Egyptian gods? ›

Egyptian gods are more powerful than the typical Norse deity in terms of sheer strength. Nearly any Egyptian deity could defeat Norse gods like Thor and Loki if they were battling in the Heliopolis.

Do Egyptian gods have powers? ›

The Egyptian gods in the movie Gods of Egypt are known to possess the following powers and abilities: Superhuman Strength - As supreme beings within Creation, gods casually exhibit stronger physical prowess in relation to mortal creatures; capable of exerting overwhelming force in battles.

Who was more powerful than the pharaoh? ›

Important Government Officials Three important officials were the vizier (vuh-ZEER), the chief treasurer, and the general of the armies. Each had his own duties. The vizier had more power than anyone except the pharaoh.

Why were the Egyptians so powerful? ›

The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley for agriculture. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported a more dense population, and social development and culture.

What is more powerful a king or a pharaoh? ›

Pharaohs were the king or Queen of Egypt. Most pharaohs were men but some well-known pharaohs, such as Nefertiti and Cleopatra, were women. A Pharaoh was the most important and powerful person in the kingdom.

How many gods did pharaoh have? ›

The ancient Egyptians worshipped over 1,400 different gods and goddesses in their shrines, temples, and homes. These deities were the centre of a religion lasting over three thousand years!

What god were the pharaohs? ›

The pharaohs of Egypt were associated with Horus since the pharaoh was considered to be the earthly embodiment of the god. In the beginning stages of the ancient Egyptian religion, Horus was believed to be the god of war and the sky, and was married to the goddess Hathor.

What are 2 interesting facts about pharaohs? ›

Top Ten Fascinating Facts About Pharaohs
  • 2-Long and Hard Training Was Required to Become A Pharaoh.
  • 3-Only a Pharaoh was Allowed to Make an Offering to the Gods.
  • 4-Pharaohs Were Depicted with a Beard. ...
  • 5-The Pharaoh had the Greatest Power in Ancient Egypt. ...
  • 6-The Pharaoh Wore Nemes Crown.
Oct 11, 2018

How did God destroy pharaoh? ›

The Egyptians pursued them, but at daybreak God clogged their chariot-wheels and threw them into a panic, and with the return of the water, the pharaoh and his entire army are destroyed.

What killed the first pharaoh? ›

The First Egyptian Pharaoh Was Killed by a Hippopotamus

Egyptian kings usually depicted themselves fighting these magnificent beasts, in order to prove their worth.

Why was the pharaoh considered a god? ›

As the religious leader of the Egyptians, the pharaoh was considered the divine intermediary between the gods and Egyptians. Maintaining religious harmony and participating in ceremonies were part of the pharaoh's role as head of the religion.

What happened to Pharaoh in the Bible? ›

But Pharaoh changes his mind and gives chase until he corners the fugitives at the Red Sea, whereupon Moses, at God's command, causes the waters to part so that the Israelites can pass safely across. When Pharaoh and his troops try to follow, the water returns and they are all drowned.

What did Pharaoh say to God? ›

Pharaoh said, "I will let you go to offer sacrifices to the LORD your God in the desert, but you must not go very far. Now pray for me." Moses answered, "As soon as I leave you, I will pray to the LORD, and tomorrow the flies will leave Pharaoh and his officials and his people.

What was God's punishment on Egypt? ›

The 10 Plagues of Egypt in Order are: water turning to blood, frogs, lice, flies, livestock pestilence, boils, hail, locusts, darkness, and the killing of firstborn children. These plagues are recorded in the Bible, and were sent by God after Pharaoh refused to let the Israelites leave Egypt.

What brought together Upper and Lower Egypt? ›

How did Upper and Lower Egypt become united? Upper and Lower Egypt became united around 3150 B.C.E. after the Upper Egyptian leader Menes, also known as Narmer, led his military forces to defeat Lower Egypt. Menes became the first king to rule over both Upper and Lower Egypt.

Which kingdom did Upper and Lower Egypt unite? ›

These communities were concentrated in the North and the South. As a result, Egypt became known as the "Double Land" or the "Two Lands" of Upper and Lower Egypt. The two lands were united in 3100 B.C. by the legendary King Menes. He established a new administrative city where the Nile River branches out into the delta.

Who was the king that unified the two kingdoms Upper and Lower Egypt and combined the crown into a double crown? ›

Menes wore both the white crown of Upper Egypt and the red crown of Lower Egypt to symbolize his leadership over the two kingdoms. Later, he combined the two crowns into a double crown. Many historians consider Menes to be Egypt's first pharaoh (FEHR-oh), the title used by the rulers of Egypt.

What was Hatshepsut known for? ›

Considered one of Egypt's greatest pharaohs—man or woman—Hatshepsut brought great wealth and artistry to her land. She sponsored one of Egypt's most successful trading expeditions, bringing back gold, ebony, and incense from a place called Punt (probably modern-day Eritrea, a country in Africa).

When did Upper and Lower Egypt merge into one kingdom? ›

The historical records of ancient Egypt begin with Egypt as a unified state, which occurred sometime around 3150 BC. According to Egyptian tradition, Menes, thought to have unified Upper and Lower Egypt, was the first king.

What made Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt different from each other? ›

Lower Egypt is in the north and contains the Nile Delta, while Upper Egypt contains areas to the South. These two designations may seem counterintuitive to their physical locations, but they reflect the flow of the Nile River, from South to North.

Who brought Lower and Upper Egypt together through conquest and marriage? ›

Definition. Menes (c. 3150 BCE) is the legendary first king of Egypt who is thought to have united Upper and Lower Egypt through conquest and founded both the First Dynasty and the great city of Memphis.

What were the 3 kingdoms of Ancient Egypt? ›

The history of ancient Egypt is divided into three main periods: the Old Kingdom (about 2,700-2,200 B.C.E.), the Middle Kingdom (2,050-1,800 B.C.E.), and the New Kingdom (about 1,550-1,100 B.C.E.). The New Kingdom was followed by a period called the Late New Kingdom, which lasted to about 343 B.C.E.

Why is Upper and Lower Egypt opposite? ›

While the labeling of "upper" and "lower" might seem counter-intuitive, with Upper Egypt in the south and Lower Egypt in the north, the terminology derives from the flow of the Nile from the highlands of East Africa (upstream) to the Mediterranean Sea (downstream).

What was Upper Egypt called? ›

Upper Egypt, Arabic Qiblī Miṣr, also called Al-Ṣaʿīd (“The Upland”), geographic and cultural division of Egypt, generally consisting of the Nile River valley south of the delta and the 30th parallel N.

What were the 2 kingdoms of ancient Egypt who united them and how? ›

The kingdom in Upper Egypt was known as the white crown and the kingdom in Lower Egypt was called the red crown. In about 3200 B. C. the pharaoh of the north conquered the south and Egypt became united. The pharaoh's name was King Narmer or Menes. Menes built a new capital city called Memphis.

What were the two kingdoms of Egypt called before the unification? ›

In Egyptian history, the Upper and Lower Egypt period (also known as The Two Lands) was the final stage of prehistoric Egypt and directly preceded the unification of the realm.

What is a pharaoh's crown called? ›

The Khepresh crown was often worn by pharaohs when going into war and many scenes of battle shown them wearing it.

Which pharaoh married his own daughter? ›

Bintanath (or Bentanath) was the firstborn daughter and later Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses II.

Who was the first girl pharaoh? ›

Hatshepsut, also spelled Hatchepsut, female king of Egypt (reigned in her own right c. 1473–58 bce) who attained unprecedented power for a woman, adopting the full titles and regalia of a pharaoh.

Who was the most powerful female pharaoh? ›

Unearthing Hatshepsut, Egypt's Most Powerful Female Pharaoh | The Metropolitan Museum of Art.


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